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Sexual Maturity Rating – SMR in boys and girls

Sexual Maturity Rating – SMR in boys and girls

In girls, the 1st visible sign of puberty and the hallmark of SMR 2 is the appearance of breast buds, between 8 and 12 yr of age. Menses typically begins 2-2.5 yr later, during SMR3-4 (median age, 12 yr; normal range, 9-16 yr). Less obvious changes include enlargement of the ovaries, uterus, labia, and clitoris, and thickening of the endometrium …

Sickle Cell Disease: A Primer

Sickle Cell Disease: A Primer

Background:
Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy wherein abnormal hemoglobin is produced. It was first noted by James Herrick a medical student of African descent in 1911, when he discovered sickle-shaped erythrocytes while examining a student’s blood. Linus Pauling further categorized the disorder by noting that when the haemoglobin from an individual with sickle cell …

Thalassemia: Understanding the Disease

Thalassemia: Understanding the Disease

Thalassemia refers to a group of inherited disorders caused due to abnormal or inadequate production of the hemoglobin molecule, present in our red blood cells. Thalassemia is derived from two words – Thalassa means ‘the sea’ in Greek, which refers to the Mediterranean Sea; Haema is ‘blood’ in Greek, indicating the obvious prevalence of the disorder among people of the …

Gullian Barre Syndrome – Post-infectious demyelinating polyneuropathy

Gullian Barre Syndrome – Post-infectious demyelinating polyneuropathy

Definition
Guillain-Barre syndrome is a postinfectious polyneuropathy involving mainly motor but sometimes also sensory and autonomic nerves. Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nervous system that results from an aberrant immune response directed at peripheral nervesThe pathogenesis of GBS is believed to be an abnormal immune response to an antecedent event, most commonly an infection. (Nelson Textbook of …

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