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Sexual Maturity Rating – SMR in boys and girls

Sexual Maturity Rating – SMR in boys and girls

In girls, the 1st visible sign of puberty and the hallmark of SMR 2 is the appearance of breast buds, between 8 and 12 yr of age. Menses typically begins 2-2.5 yr later, during SMR3-4 (median age, 12 yr; normal range, 9-16 yr). Less obvious changes include enlargement of the ovaries, uterus, labia, and clitoris, and thickening of the endometrium …

Sickle Cell Disease: A Primer

Sickle Cell Disease: A Primer

Background:
Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy wherein abnormal hemoglobin is produced. It was first noted by James Herrick a medical student of African descent in 1911, when he discovered sickle-shaped erythrocytes while examining a student’s blood. Linus Pauling further categorized the disorder by noting that when the haemoglobin from an individual with sickle cell …

Thalassemia: Understanding the Disease

Thalassemia: Understanding the Disease

Thalassemia refers to a group of inherited disorders caused due to abnormal or inadequate production of the hemoglobin molecule, present in our red blood cells. Thalassemia is derived from two words – Thalassa means ‘the sea’ in Greek, which refers to the Mediterranean Sea; Haema is ‘blood’ in Greek, indicating the obvious prevalence of the disorder among people of the …

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