Gynae/Obstr

Better You Gynae/Obstr

After Safe Abortion : Care and Curiosity

Abortion refers to the expulsion of fetus from the uterus before the birth. According to medical science, expulsion before 22 weeks is regarded as abortion. As a doctor, your counselling must quench the following curiosities of the patient/client. Curiosity 1: What are the things I should know after Safe Abortion Service (SAS) ? Take given […]

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Gynae/Obstr

MBBS Guide : Topics for Gyne/Obs Exam

Obstetrics Anatomy Placenta anatomy, functions, umbilical cord and abnormalities (Viva) Physiological changes in Pregnancy and normal puerperium Human chorionic gonadotrophin and Urine pregnancy test Terminologies used in History and Examination (Viva) Labor vs False labor vs Braxton-Hicks contraction and D/d of acute abdomen in pregnancy 2 methods of placental separation Mechanism of normal labor (Theory […]

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Gynae/Obstr

Maternal Rhesus Isoimmunization : Rh incompatibility

Alloimmunization (Isoimmunisation) is defined as the antibody response to foreign antigen derived from different individual of the same species. Rh alloimmunization refers to the development antibodies to Rh D antigen. Antibodies may be produced to Rh antigens C,c,D,E, or e but only D is strongly immunogenic. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 1st Rh+ve pregnancy: Rh negative mother bearing Rh […]

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Gynae/Obstr

Uterine leiomyoma or Fibroid

Definition: Most common benign neoplasm of female genital tract composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue that is hormonally responsive (Growth ↑ in pregnancy and ↓ after menopause). Gross pathology: Discrete, round, firm, irregularly lobulated and often multiple. Enlarged uterus Smooth and white cut surface with whorled appearance False capsule: pinkish color Center of tumor […]

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Gynae/Obstr

Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Definition: It is the polymicrobial infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract typically involving the fallopian tubes, ovaries and surrounding structures (endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, tubo-ovarian abscess). Causative organisms: Primary organisms: Ascending spread of micro-organisms from cervico-vaginal canal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1/3rd cases) Chlamydia trachomats (1/3rd cases) Mycoplasma hominis (1/10th cases) Secondary organisms: Endogenous aerobes: […]

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Gynae/Obstr

A Short Review of Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage

Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy, either spontaneously or intentionally: 1. Prior to age of viability (28 weeks) OR 2. < 500 gm birth weight Common Causes of Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage): A) 1st trimester (GEI) Genetic factors: Autosomal trisomy, Polyploidy, Monosomy X, Mosaic, Double trisomy Endocrine disorders: Luteal phase defect (LPD), Thyroid abnormalities, DM […]

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Gynae/Obstr

Bishop Score And Modified Bishop Score in Obstetrics

Bishop Score or Prelabor Scoring Bishop score is a pre-labour scoring system that helps to assist in predicting whether induction of labor will be required during parturition. It uses several clinically measurable parameters to calulate a score. Components Included to Calculate the score are  Cervical dilation  Cervical effacement  Cervical consistency  Cervical position  Fetal station Enlarge […]

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Gynae/Obstr

A Review of Ectopic Pregnancy

Definition: Implantation and development of fertilized ovum outside the normal endometrial cavity Sites of Implantation: 1. Extrauterine (98.5%): Tubal (97%): Ampulla, Isthmus, Indundibulum, Interstitium Ovarian (0.5%) Abdominal (1%): Secondary > Primary 2. Uterine (1.5%): Cervical (<1%) Angular Cornual (In bicornuate uterus) Cesarean section scar Heterotopic pregnancy: combination of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy. Risk Factors: History […]

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Gynae/Obstr

Excessive Menstrual Bleeding or Menorrhagia

Synonyms: Hypermenorrhea Definition: Normally in each menstrual cycle 40-70 ml of bleeding occurs. Normally blood clots are also absent. Menorrhagia is defined , if in cyclical bleeding at normal intervals , excessive bleeding of more than 80 ml occurs or cycle is of excessive duration or if both occurs. Menotaxis is a term used to […]

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