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Beta Lactam Antibiotics

Beta Lactam Antibiotics

BETA LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS:
are the most popularly used antibiotics. They are  any antibiotic agent that contains a β-lactam chain in the molecular structure. Penicillin is the prototype drug and once was a cure for almost anything. Sir Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin. It was a miracle discovery in history of Mankind.
Mechanism of Action:
-          Interfere with the synthesis of …

Microbiology of Neisseria Meningitidis

Microbiology of Neisseria Meningitidis

Notes on Classification, Morphology, Colony Characteristics, Biochemical Properties, Serogroups, Virulence factors, Pathogenesis, Clinical Syndrome, Epidemiology, Prophylaxis and Laboratory Diagnosis of Neisseria Meningitidis
Classification
Family: Neisseriaceae
Genus: Neisseria
Species: Neisseria Meningitidis
Morphology

Gram negative diplococcus (paired)

Size: 0.6-0.8 μm
Bean shaped
Non-motile
Aerobe
Encapsulated

Colony characterisitics

Color: Bluish grey
Shape: Round
Size: About 1mm
Surface: Smooth
Elevation: Convex
Opacity: Transluscent
Consistency: Butyrous

Biochemical Properties:

Oxidase positive
Catalase positive
Ferments glucose and maltose with acid production
Gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase positive
Production of Deoxyribonuclease (DNAse)
Nitrate negative
Doesn’t ferment lactose, sucrose …

Development of Nervous System : Embryology

Development of Nervous System : Embryology

Nervous system is one of the earliest systems to begin development and the last to be completed after birth. The entire nervous system develops from the ectoderm.
Ectoderm forms the neural plate during 3rd week of development. Neural groove forms in the midline of the neural plate, either side of which are the neural folds. Groove continues to deepen until about …

MgSO4 in management of Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia

MgSO4 in management of Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia

MANAGING SEVERE PRE-ECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA WITH MgSO4

LOADING DOSE
• Take 4 gm MgSO4 IV as 20% solution
• Take one 20ml syringe
• Draw 4 ampules of MgSO4 50%= 8ml= 4gm into the syringe
• Add 12 ml water for inj to make it 20%
• Give IV slowly over 5 minutes
Follow promptly with 10 gm as 50% MgSO4 deep IM
• Take two 10ml syringes
• Draw 5 amp of MgSO4 50% …


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