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Rabies : Facts, Features and management Guidelines

Rabies : Facts, Features and management Guidelines

Rabies is a zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals is caused by a Rhabdovirus belonging to Lyssavirus. It is a bullet-shaped virus.
Mode of transmission-
Bites and licks on abrasions or intact mucus membrane by infected animals. Saliva is the vehicle of transmission. Bites,Licks,corneal graft,salivary aerosol can cause transmission.
Common sources of infection-
Rabid dogs, Monkey, Cat, Mice, Vampire bats.
Worldwide- Dogs,cats,canines,cattles, even Humans. Skunks,raccoons,vampire bats, …

Lung Volumes, Capacities and Dead Space

Lung Volumes, Capacities and Dead Space

Lung Volumes, Capacities and Dead Space- Definitions and Normal values . Knowledge of these values are quite important to understand respiratory physiology, pathological basis of various respiratory illnesses and for anesthesia.
Tidal Volume (TV)- Volume of gas inspired or expired in each breath during normal quiet respiration. It is 400-500 ml ie 10ml/kg
Inspiratory Reserve Volume ( IRV)- It is the maximum …

Mechanism of Cough and Sneeze

Mechanism of Cough and Sneeze


Extrathoracic: nose, oropharynx, larynx, upper trachea
Intrathoracic: rapidly adapting irritant receptors in epithelium of lower trachea and large central bronchi
Other locations: tympanic membrane, diaphragm, stomach
Cough Reflex:
Cough is an expulsive reflex that protects the lungs and respiratory passage from foreign bodies.
Causes of cough:

Irritants-smokes, fumes, dusts, etc.
Diseased conditions like COPD, tumors of thorax, etc.
Pressure on respiratory tracts

Components of cough reflex:

Cough receptors
Afferent nerves
Cough center
Efferent …

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