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Auscultatory gap in hypertension

Auscultatory gap in hypertension

Sometimes during manual blood pressure measurement by auscultatory method, after a few initial tapping sounds, no sound is heard for a variable duration and then the sounds are heard again. This period when no sound is heard is called as auscultatory gap.
Korotkoff sounds:
When the cuff pressure is great enough to close the artery during part of the arterial pressure cycle, …

Pathogenesis of Glomerular Injury

Pathogenesis of Glomerular Injury

Primary Immunopathogenic mechanism:
Initiator of the disease process by:

Antibody mediated injury: immune complex deposition or cytotoxic antibodies
T-cell mediated immune injury: non-immune complex deposition mechanism

Secondary immunopathogenic mechanism:
Role of mediators of the disease:
A) Cells:

Neutrophils and monocytes
Macrophages, T lymphocytes and NK cells
Resident glomerular cells (Mesagnial cells)

B) Soluble mediators:

Complement components
Eicosanoids, NO, angiotensin and endothelin
Cytokines: IL-1 and TNF
Chemokines: MCP-1, RANTES, TGF-B
Coagulation system

Antibody Mediated Injury

Membranous glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy
Membranoproliferative …

Top 5 Weird Medical Conditions

Top 5 Weird Medical Conditions

1. Progeria
“Aging in childhood” would most appropriately describe the term “Progeria” which is also known as Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome. Progeria is a rare and fatal congenital disorder marked by physical symptoms resembling that of aging but having early onset in childhood. It has a reported incidence of about 1 in 4 – 8 million newborns. People suffering from this disorder survives …

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