Cough is one of the most common presenting complain in children at Out-patient. Cough may be just a benign protective phenomenon , but at times it become troublesome. Cause of cough should be sought for even outside the respiratory system, like ears, abdomen etc.
Cough lasting for 4 weeks or more -CHEST January 2006
1.Inflammatory disorder of airway
Asthma & Loeffler’s syndrome, Tropical eosinophilia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Infection- viral, bacterial, chlamydia, mycoplasma, tuberculosis, fungal, parasitic etc.
Inhalation of environmental irritant- smoke, dust, tobacco.
2.Suppurative lung disease
Bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis
Foreign body retained in the bronchi
Immune deficiency, dysmobility of cilia
Vascular ring compressing airway; tracheal stenosis; tracheo-esophageal fistula; congenital malformations; sequestrated lobe; laryngeal web, cyst or stenosis; vocal cord paralysis; laryngotracheobronchomalacia
4.Psychogenic- habit cough
5.Post nasal discharge, sinusitis
6.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (chronic aspiration)
7.Interstitial lung disease
8.Pressure to trachea/main bronchus enlarged LN, cysts,& tumors in mediastinum. anomalous Lt. pulmonary artery
a. Pulmonary edema
b. Congestive cardiac failure
e. congenital heart disease
a. ACE inhibitor
b. Beta antagonists
11. Abdominal Causes
b.eventeration of diaphragm
c. intra-abdominal masses