Ketone bodies, produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells from acetyl-CoA enter blood, provide much of the energy to heart tissue, and during starvation to the brain. They include 3 water soluble chemicals namely: acetone, acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (not a true ketone). The levels of acetone are much lower than those of the other 2 ketone bodies; it cannot …
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The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an invitro method of DNA amplification that can rapidly clone (amplify) DNA samples as small as a single molecule. If a length of DNA is mixed with the 4 nucleotides (A, T, C and G), and the enzyme DNA polymerase, then the DNA will be replicated many times. Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis, …
Enzymes are the extremely selective biocatalysts synthesized by living cells. Therapeutic enzymes are those enzymes which can be used medically either isolately or adjunctly with other therapies with the purpose of treatment of various diseases safely. Use of these enzymes as drugs for the treatment of medical problems forms the basis for “Therapeutic use of enzymes”. The cost of such …
Also called isozymes
Are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction
Arise through gene duplication
Differ in their physical and chemical properties, Km and Vmax values, optimum pH, substrate affinity, etc.
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
Lactate ←LDH→ Pyruvate
LDH is a tetrameric enzyme with 2 types of subunit “H” and “M” :
M (for muscle) : basic
H (for heart) …
Introduction, cause, symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis and treatments of CPT I deficiency
CPT I (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) deficinecy is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that prevents the body from converting certain fats called long chain fatty acids into energy and is generally associated with a viral illness and prolonged fasting. Onset is in infancy or early childhood.
Homozygous mutation in the …