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Glycogen Metabolism and Glycogen storage Diseases

Glycogen Metabolism and Glycogen storage Diseases

Glycogen is the major storage carbohydrate in animals, corresponding to starch in plants; it is a branched polymer of α-D-glucose. It is stored mainly in liver and muscle. Due to more muscle mass, the quantity of glycogen in muscle (250gm) is about 3 times higher than that in the liver (75 gm).

Liver glycogen helps to maintain blood glucose level: Liver glycogen …

Ketone bodies, Ketosis and Ketoacidosis

Ketone bodies, Ketosis and Ketoacidosis

Ketone bodies, produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells from acetyl-CoA enter blood, provide much of the energy to heart tissue, and during starvation to the brain. They include 3 water soluble chemicals namely: acetone, acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (not a true ketone). The levels of acetone are much lower than those of the other 2 ketone bodies; it cannot …

Polymerase Chain Reaction: Principles and Uses of PCR

Polymerase Chain Reaction: Principles and Uses of PCR

The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an invitro method of DNA amplification that can rapidly clone (amplify) DNA samples as small as a single molecule. If a length of DNA is mixed with the 4 nucleotides (A, T, C and G), and the enzyme DNA polymerase, then the DNA will be replicated many times. Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis, …

Therapeutic Use of Enzymes

Therapeutic Use of Enzymes

Enzymes are the extremely selective biocatalysts synthesized by living cells. Therapeutic enzymes are those enzymes which can be used medically either isolately or adjunctly with other therapies with the purpose of treatment of various diseases safely. Use of these enzymes as drugs for the treatment of medical problems forms the basis for “Therapeutic use of enzymes”. The cost of such …

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