Medicine

Medicine

Diagnostic Facies

Some facial characteristics are so typical of certain diseases that they immediately suggest the diagnosis. These are pathognomic to certain disease and are called diagnostic facies. Some of the important diagnostic facies are: Acromegalic facies (Acromegaly) Large supraorbital ridge and frontal bossing, thickened lips, enlarge tongue, lower jaw firm and square (protruding jaw = prognathism) […]

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Penicillin anaphylaxis
Dermatology Medicine Pharmacology

Penicillin Anaphylaxis : A Dreaded Drug Reaction

Penicillin or Beta lactam antibiotics are commonly associated with drug reactions which are immunologically mediated reactions. Why does penicillin anaphylaxis occur? The core structure Beta lactams consists of a reactive bicyclic B lactam ring that acts as a hapten by covalently binding to tissue carrier proteins. 95% of tissue bound penicillin is found to be […]

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fulminant hepatic failure
Medicine

Acute Liver failure: Classification, causes, features and management

Also Known as Fulminant Hepatic Failure, it is a Syndrome in which hepatic encephalopathy, characterized by mental changes progressing from confusion to stupor and coma, and results from a sudden severe impairment of hepatic function. According to some authors, Acute liver failure is a broad term and encompasses both fulminant hepatic failure and subfulminant hepatic […]

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Medicine

Arterial Blood Gas Sampling and Analysis

These are typical reference ranges, although various analysers and laboratories may employ different ranges. Online Interpreter ABG : http://manuelsweb.com/abg.htm Analyte Range Interpretation pH 7.35-7.45 The pH or H+ indicates if a patient is acidotic (pH < 7.35; H+ >45) or alkalemic (pH > 7.45; H+ < 35). H+ 35-45 nmol/l(nM) See above. PaO2 9.3-13.3kPa or 80-100mmHg […]

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Medicine

Paracentesis and Ascitic Fluid analysis in context of SBP

Indications for diagnostic paracentesis: Cirrhotic patients with ascites at admission Cirrhotic patients with ascites and signs or symptoms of infection: fever, leukocytosis, abdominal pain Cirrhotic patients with ascites who present with a clinical condition that is deteriorating during hospitalization: renal function impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding Patients with new-onset ascites Peritoneal Fluid Analysis: Test and […]

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Medicine

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE Definition Group of heterogeneous conditions embracing chronic bronchitis, chronic bronchiolitis (small airway disease) and emphysema characterized by air flow limitation that is not fully reversible.Emphysema is defined as enlargement of the distal airways with destruction of acinus , without associated fibrosis.Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically as cough, productive of at least […]

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Medicine

Non Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

NONCARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema(NCPE) results from elevated pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure damage to vascular endothelium by factors that disrupt pulmonary surfactant and decrease lung compliance. CAUSES: drug overdose near drowning thermal injury inhalation of toxic gases trauma sepsis shock high altitude illness pulmonary embolism ARDS pulmonary lymphatic obstruction aspiration of gastric contents disseminated […]

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Medicine

CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA

CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA DEFINITION: Interstitial edema, including fluid engorgement of the perivascular and peribronchial spaces and the alveolar wall interstitium. ETIOLOGY: Arrhythmias , MI , severe systemic hypertension Pulmonary embolism , valvular heart disease Increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Cardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when the pulmonary capillary pressure exceeds the forces that maintain fluid […]

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Medicine

Acute Myocardial Infarction, AMI or ‘Heart Attack"

Acute Myocardial Infarction Definition: Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing heart cells to die, commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids and white blood […]

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