- To Define Antibiotic Resistance.
- To Discuss Various Factors Affecting Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic & Antibiotic Resistance
• Antibiotic: any of various chemical substances,produced by various microorganisms, esp. fungi, or made synthetically and capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganism.
• People may exhibit allergic reactions to antibiotics, but they are not resistant to them. It is the bacteria themselves, not the infected host, which become resistant.
Antibiotic Resistance: the ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to withstand an antibiotic to which they
were once sensitive
Tolerance of micro-organisms to inhibitory action of antibiotics.
Resistance to antibiotics is a biological phenomenon that can be accelerated by a variety of factors, including human practices.
Resistance Can be: Drug Tolerance, Drug Destruction, Drug Impermeability, Cross resistance.
Antibiotic Resistance Is A Serious Worldwide Problem
• The monetary cost of treating antibiotic resistant infections worldwide is estimated to be many billions of dollars per year.
• According to the researchers : the resistance to antibiotics is increasing at a faster pace than it can be controlled.
• Since antibiotic resistance can pass from bacterium to bacterium and resistant bacterial infections can pass from
person to person. Thus, antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance can eventually affect an entire community.
Factors Affecting Antibiotic Resistance
• Patient’s incompliance to recommended treatment
– Forget to take medication
– Interrupt their treatment when they begin to feel better
– May be unable to afford full course
– May also be due to inadequate physician patient interaction
• Irrational use of antibiotics in humans
– Self-medication (Unnecessary, Inadequate dose )
– Misuse ( Easy availability in pharmacies without prescription )Factors Affecting Antibiotic
– Over prescribing of broad spectrum drugs when narrow spectrum are appropriate
– Wrong prescription and guidelines from unskilled practitioners
– Unnecessary prescriptions common in private practitioners
• Hospitals :
– Nosocomial infections with highly resistant bacterial pathogens.
– Mainly due to poor infection control practices like handwashing, changing gloves, etc.
• Poor Quality Of Antibiotics:
– Expired and counterfeit antibiotics
– Due to lack of quality compliance and monitoring
• Irrational Use Of Antibiotics In Animals
– Used for growth and disease control in poultry, cattle, pigs, etc.
– We are indirectly taking these antibiotics when we are eating these animals.
• Inadequate Surveillance & Susceptibility Testing:
– Unknown susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates encourages empirical selection of broad spectrum antibiotics.
– Due to lack of equipment and personnel.
• Crowding/Travel of People & Unhygienic Conditions:
– Residents of developing countries often carry antibiotic-resistant fecal commensal organisms . Visitors to developing countries passively acquire antibiotic-resistant E.coli, even if they are not taking prophylactic antibiotics, which suggests that they encounter a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant strains during travel.
• Developing prescription guidelines, Emphasizing on public awareness, emphasizing quality compliance and monitoring of antibiotics manufactured or dispensed, public sanitation, improved hospital infection control are some of the measures to be taken to combat the growing problem of Antibiotic Resistance.
- • http://www.cdc.gov
- • http://www.who.int/en
- Prepared By:
- • Srijana Shakya (79)
- • Sulabh Shrestha (80)
- • Surakshya Rayamajhi (81)
- • Surendra Pariyar (82)
- • Sushil Dulal (83)
- • Sushmita Sharma (84)