Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder of glucose metabolism with hyperglycemia triggered by conditions associated with a relative or absolute insulin deficiency. Insulin is an anabolic hormone with profound effects on the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Less severe hyperglycemia is called Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) which is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in future. …
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This is a collection of a large number of important clinical and radiological signs in surgery. Most of these are eponyms. Comment to add more signs to this list.
Basilar skull fracture:
Racoon/Panda sign: Periorbital ecchymoses
Battle’s sign: Retroauricular (Over mastoid process) ecchymoses
Seat-belt sign: Ecchymotic area found in the distribution of the lower anterior abdominal wall and can be associated with perforation …
Definition: Inflammation of the pancreas due to parenchymal autodigestion by proteolytic enzymes
The clinical definition of acute pancreatitis, whether in the presence or absence of underlying chronic pancreatitis, requires atleast 2 of the following 3 features:
Clinical assessment: Abdominal pain suggestive strongly of acute pancreatitis.
Enzymes: Serum amylase and/or lipase activity at least 3 times greater than the upper limit of normal.
Imaging: Characteristic findings …
ANATOMY OF APPENDIX
Because of the variation in position, the appendix is said to be the only organ in the body without anatomy. However, the anatomy of vermiform appendix has been discussed in detail here.
1. White race > Dark race; Young males; Middle class and rich
2. Diet rich in meat and lacking cellulose
3. Long retrocecal appendix (due to diminished blood supply)
A group of miscellaneous affections of the growing epiphyses in children and adolescents. Typically , a bony nucleus of the epiphysis affected by osteochondritis is temporarily softened and is likely to get deformed by pressure in this stage.
Osteochondritis is sometimes classified as-
Crushing type or Osteochondrosis
Tractions Osteochondritis or traction apophysistis
Common Osteochnodrites –
Perthes’ disease – Head of femur is affected
Panner’s disease- …