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Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease

Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an acute, immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disease involving heart, joints, CNS, skin and other tissues that occurs a few weeks after an episode of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis. Acute rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the cardiac manifestation of RF and is associated with inflammation of the valves, myocardium, or pericardium. Rheumatic fever is said to “lick …

Myocardial Infarction Made Easy

Myocardial Infarction Made Easy

The 4 Ischemic Heart Diseases caused due to imbalance between supply and demand of the heart for oxygenated blood are:

Acute Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Angina Pectoris
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)
Sudden Cardiac Death

Myocardial Infarction (MI) Commonly known as a heart attack, is an anemic infarct with coagulative necrosis of a large area of the myocardium due to occlusion of one of the three …

Pathogenesis of Glomerular Injury

Pathogenesis of Glomerular Injury

Primary Immunopathogenic mechanism:
Initiator of the disease process by:

Antibody mediated injury: immune complex deposition or cytotoxic antibodies
T-cell mediated immune injury: non-immune complex deposition mechanism

Secondary immunopathogenic mechanism:
Role of mediators of the disease:
A) Cells:

Neutrophils and monocytes
Macrophages, T lymphocytes and NK cells
Resident glomerular cells (Mesagnial cells)

B) Soluble mediators:

Complement components
Eicosanoids, NO, angiotensin and endothelin
Cytokines: IL-1 and TNF
Chemokines: MCP-1, RANTES, TGF-B
Coagulation system

Antibody Mediated Injury

Membranous glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy
Membranoproliferative …

Morphology of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Morphology of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) is a term used to describe the spectrum of liver injury associated with acute andchronic alcoholism.
The 3 stages of Alcoholic Liver Disease are:

Hepatic steatosis (fatty change)
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcoholic cirrhosis

Interrelationships among stages of Alcoholic Liver Disease:

Gross appearance of Normal Liver:
Weighing 1200-1600 grams
Reddish brown in color
Soft in consistency
Smooth surface
Microscopic examination of Normal Liver and Hepatocytes:

Hepatic Steatosis:
Steatosis is a …

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