Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
1. Family history of diabetes
2. Obesity (BMI 25 kg/m2)
3. Habitual physical inactivity
4. Race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander)
5. Previously identified IFG or IGT
6. History of GDM or delivery of baby >4 kg (>9 lb)
7. Hypertension (blood pressure 140/90 mmHg)
8. HDL cholesterol level <35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or a triglyceride level >250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)
9. Polycystic ovary syndrome or acanthosis nigricans
10. History of vascular disease
Diagnosis Of DM Type 2:
The National Diabetes Data Group and World Health Organization have issued diagnostic criteria for DM based on the following premises:
(1) the spectrum of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the response to an oral glucose load (OGTT—oral glucose tolerance test) varies among normal individuals, and
(2) DM is defined as the level of glycemia at which diabetes-specific complications occur rather than on deviations from a population-based mean.
Criteria for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
• Symptoms of diabetes plus random blood glucose concentration 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL)aor
• Fasting plasma glucose 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL)bor
• Two-hour plasma glucose 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) during an oral glucose tolerance test
- Random is defined as without regard to time since the last meal.
- Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h.
- The test should be performed using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water; not recommended for routine clinical use.
Note: In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia and acute metabolic decompensation, these criteria should be confirmed by repeat testing on a different day.
Source: Adapted from American Diabetes Association, 2007
Nutritional Recommendations for Adults with DiabetesFat
• 20–35% of total caloric intake
• Saturated fat < 7% of total calories
• <200 mg/day of dietary cholesterol
• Two or more servings of fish/week provide -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
• Minimal trans fat consumption
• 45–65% of total caloric intake (low-carbohydrate diets are not recommended)
Amount and type of carbohydrate important
• Sucrose-containing foods may be consumed with adjustments in insulin dose
• 10–35% of total caloric intake (high-protein diets are not recommended)
• Fiber-containing foods may reduce postprandial glucose excursions
• Nonnutrient sweeteners
Also read : Tips on planning a diabetic diet