“Aging in childhood” would most appropriately describe the term “Progeria” which is also known as Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome. Progeria is a rare and fatal congenital disorder marked by physical symptoms resembling that of aging but having early onset in childhood. It has a reported incidence of about 1 in 4 – 8 million newborns. People suffering from this disorder survives for 13 years in average with a range of about 8 – 21 years.
It is caused due to point mutation in the LMNA gene that encodes the protein Lamina A which is a part of the building blocks of nuclear envelope.
2. Werewolf syndrome:
Congenital Hypertrichosis Lanuginosa is a rare disease with around only 50 noticed cases till today. People suffering from this disease is usually always associated with teeth defects and excess gum growth and have been referred to as dog-men, hair-men, human Skye terriers, ape-men, werewolves, and Homo sylvestris. Hypertrichosis is a non–androgen-related pattern of excessive hair growth. Congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa is noticeable at birth with the infant completely covered in thin lanugo hair.
3. Ondine’s curse:
Medically referred to as “Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS)” is a multisystem disorder of the CNS where, the automatic control of breathing is absent or impaired. A CCHS patient’s respiratory response to low blood oxygen saturation (hypoxia) or to CO2 retention (hypercapnia) is sluggish during awake hours and absent to varying degrees during sleep, serious illness, and/or stress. The name Ondine’s curse is of historical importance and refers to the curse of a water nymph Ondine to her unfaithful lover who promised that his every waking breath would be a testimony of his love. Only around 200-300 well-known cases have been noticed all around the world.
The mechanisms of the involuntary breathing do not work properly and the main cause of the disease is the mutation of PHOX2B gene.
4. Dissociative Fugue:
Dissociative fugue is a rare condition characterized by sudden, unexpected travel away from home or one’s customary place of work, with inability to recall one’s past, confusion about personal identity, or the assumption of a new identity, or significant distress or impairment. It is estimated to affect just 0.2% of the population, nearly all of them adults. Commonly, individuals who experience the onset of dissociative fugue are found wandering in a dazed or confused state, unable to recall their own identity or recognize their own relatives or daily surroundings.
Read more Dissociative Fugue: “Lost” | Medchrome
5. Fetus in fetu:
This is a rare condition in which a fetus becomes enveloped by its twin in the womb and is often referred to as “Parasitic twin” disease. It is estimated to occur in 1 in 500,000 live births. Most cases of fetus in fetu are caught when the host twin is an infant, though there have been cases of people in their 30s and 40s carrying their own twin. This disorder has also been tried to explain through the “Teratoma theory”.