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Risk factors, Diagnosis and Nutritional planning for Diabetes

  • February 18, 2011
  • 2 min read
Risk factors, Diagnosis and Nutritional planning for Diabetes

Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
1. Family history of diabetes
2. Obesity (BMI 25 kg/m2)
3. Habitual physical inactivity
4. Race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander)
5. Previously identified IFG or IGT
6. History of GDM or delivery of baby >4 kg (>9 lb)
7. Hypertension (blood pressure 140/90 mmHg)
8. HDL cholesterol level <35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or a triglyceride level >250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)
9. Polycystic ovary syndrome or acanthosis nigricans
10. History of vascular disease

Diagnosis Of DM Type 2:

The National Diabetes Data Group and World Health Organization have issued diagnostic criteria for DM based on the following premises:

(1) the spectrum of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the response to an oral glucose load (OGTT—oral glucose tolerance test) varies among normal individuals, and

(2) DM is defined as the level of glycemia at which diabetes-specific complications occur rather than on deviations from a population-based mean.

Criteria for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus

• Symptoms of diabetes plus random blood glucose concentration 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL)aor
• Fasting plasma glucose 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL)bor
• Two-hour plasma glucose 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) during an oral glucose tolerance test

  1. Random is defined as without regard to time since the last meal.
  2. Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h.
  3. The test should be performed using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water; not recommended for routine clinical use.

Note: In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia and acute metabolic decompensation, these criteria should be confirmed by repeat testing on a different day.
Source: Adapted from American Diabetes Association, 2007

Nutritional Recommendations for Adults with DiabetesFat

plate model diabetic diet

• 20–35% of total caloric intake
• Saturated fat < 7% of total calories
• <200 mg/day of dietary cholesterol
• Two or more servings of fish/week provide -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
• Minimal trans fat consumption

• 45–65% of total caloric intake (low-carbohydrate diets are not recommended)
Amount and type of carbohydrate important
• Sucrose-containing foods may be consumed with adjustments in insulin dose

• 10–35% of total caloric intake (high-protein diets are not recommended)
Other components
• Fiber-containing foods may reduce postprandial glucose excursions
• Nonnutrient sweeteners

Also read : Tips on planning a diabetic diet

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  • By complying with medication, testing and diet, you can keep your diabetes under control.
    There are several testimonials available from users of The Diabetes Protocol Program.

    In severe cases, the urination condition ultimately leads to kidney failure.

  • The improper use of insulin by body cells(which is caused by diabetes)will leads to high blood glucose, or sugar, levels in your blood. Proper planning and healthy eating helps to reduce your blood sugar. I appreciate you for detailing the stats in this regard!

  • The FBS/PPBS and OGT test are very helpful in diagnosis of DM II.
    Mover over determining OHA or insulin is equally important in treatment.
    Great article

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