These are typical reference ranges, although various analysers and laboratories may employ different ranges.
Online Interpreter ABG : http://manuelsweb.com/abg.htm
|pH||7.35-7.45||The pH or H+ indicates if a patient is acidotic (pH < 7.35; H+ >45) or alkalemic (pH > 7.45; H+ < 35).|
|H+||35-45 nmol/l(nM)||See above.|
|PaO2||9.3-13.3kPa or 80-100mmHg||A low O2 indicates that the patient is not respiring properly, and is hypoxemic. At a PaO2 of less than 60 mm Hg, supplemental oxygen should be administered. At a PaO2 of less than 26 mm Hg, the patient is at risk of death and must be oxygenated immediately.|
|PaCO2||4.7-6.0 kPa or 35-45 mmHg||The carbon dioxide and partial pressure (PaCO2) indicates a respiratory problem: for a constant metabolic rate, the PaCO2 is determined entirely by ventilation. A high PaCO2 (respiratory acidosis) indicates underventilation, a low PaCO2 (respiratory alkalosis) hyper- or overventilation. PaCO2 levels can also become abnormal when the respiratory system is working to compensate for a metabolic issue so as to normalize the blood pH. An elevated PaCO2 level is desired in some disorders associated with respiratory failure; this is known as permissive hypercapnia.|
|HCO3?||22-26 mmol/l||The HCO3- ion indicates whether a metabolic problem is present (such as ketoacidosis). A low HCO3? indicates metabolic acidosis, a high HCO3? indicatesmetabolic alkalosis. HCO3? levels can also become abnormal when the kidneys are working to compensate for a respiratory issue so as to normalize the blood pH.|
|SBCe||21 to 27 mmol/l||the bicarbonate concentration in the blood at a CO2 of 5.33 kPa, full oxygen saturation and 37 degrees Celsius.|
|Base excess||3 to +3 mmol/l||The base excess is used for the assessment of the metabolic component of acid-base disorders, and indicates whether the patient has metabolic acidosis or metabolic alkalosis. A negative base excess indicates that the patient has metabolic acidosis (primary or secondary to respiratory alkalosis). A positive base excess indicates that the patient has metabolic alkalosis (primary or secondary to respiratory acidosis).|
|HPO42?||0.8 to 1.5 mM|
|total CO2(tCO2(P)c)||25 to 30 mmol/l||This is the total amount of CO2, and is the sum of HCO3? and PCO2 by the formula:
tCO2 = [HCO3?] + ?*PCO2, where ?=0.226 mM/kPa, HCO3? is expressed in millimolar concentration (mM) (mmol/l) and PCO2 is expressed in kPa
|total O2(tO2e)||This is the sum of oxygen solved in plasma and chemically bound to hemoglobin.