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Osteochondritis and Perthes Disease

Osteochondritis and Perthes Disease

A group of miscellaneous affections of the growing epiphyses in children and adolescents. Typically , a bony nucleus of the epiphysis affected by osteochondritis is temporarily softened and is likely to get deformed by pressure in this stage.
Osteochondritis is sometimes classified as-

Crushing type or Osteochondrosis
Osteochondritis dissecans
Tractions Osteochondritis or traction apophysistis

Common Osteochnodrites –

Perthes’ disease – Head of femur is affected
Panner’s disease- …

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Features and Treatment

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Features and Treatment

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome : Anatomy, Pathology, Causes, Clinical features, Diagnostic Tests and Treatment
Anatomy of Carpal Tunnel:
Carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway in the wrist formed by:
Posterior side: 8 carpal bones
Anterior side: Transverse carpal ligament
Contents:
9 Flexor tendons
Median Nerve
Median Nerve Distribution in Hand:
Origin: From lateral and medial cords of brachial plexus
Motor innervation:
Lumbricals: 1st and 2nd
Muscles of thenar eminence: Opponens pollicis, Abductor Pollicis …

Complications of Blood transfusion and their management

Complications of Blood transfusion and their management

A. Transfusion Reactions:
May be allergic or hemolytic
1. Hemolytic reactions: can be acute or delayed
Acute Hemolytic reactions:

It is usely due to ABO incompatibility, there is intravascular hemolysis
As low as 10 ml of blood can produce hemolytic reactions
Clinically, patients presents with complains of pain and burning in vein and fever with chills and rigor, nausea and vomiting, flushing, chest …

Shock: Quick Review and Management.

Shock: Quick Review and Management.

SHOCK
DEFINITION:-
Shock is an acute clinical syndrome characterized by poor tissue perfusion with impaired cellular metabolism, which is manifested as different serious pathophysiological abnormalities.
 
CLASSIFICATION OF SHOCK
Hypovolaemia
Cardiogenic
Intrinsic
Compressive
Septic
Hyperdynamic
Hypodynamic
Anaphylactic
Traumatic
Neurogenic
Hypoadrenal
CAUSES OF SHOCK

Hypovolaemia shock:- due to reduction in total Blood volume.
Loss of blood:- hemorrhagic shock, RTA, major surgeries.
Loss of plasma:- burn shock, pancreatitis.
Loss of fluid:- diarrhea, vomiting , …

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