January 3, 2014 # 4:30 pm # Gynae/Obstr # No Comment
Alloimmunization (Isoimmunisation) is defined as the antibody response to foreign antigen derived from different individual of the same species. Rh alloimmunization refers to the development antibodies to Rh D antigen. Antibodies may be produced to Rh antigens C,c,D,E, or e but only D is strongly immunogenic.
1st Rh+ve pregnancy: Rh negative mother bearing Rh positive fetus
Feto-maternal bleed: Abortion, Amniocentesis, Antepartum hemorrhage, …
January 30, 2013 # 7:09 pm # Gynae/Obstr # No Comment
Definition: Most common benign neoplasm of female genital tract composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue that is hormonally responsive (Growth ↑ in pregnancy and ↓ after menopause).
Discrete, round, firm, irregularly lobulated and often multiple.
Smooth and white cut surface with whorled appearance
False capsule: pinkish color
Center of tumor is least vascular and likely to degenerate
Within uterine …
December 11, 2012 # 7:35 pm # Gynae/Obstr # No Comment
Definition: It is the polymicrobial infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract typically involving the fallopian tubes, ovaries and surrounding structures (endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, tubo-ovarian abscess).
Primary organisms: Ascending spread of micro-organisms from cervico-vaginal canal
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1/3rd cases)
Chlamydia trachomats (1/3rd cases)
Mycoplasma hominis (1/10th cases)
Endogenous aerobes: Non-hemolytic streptococcus, E.coli, Group B streptococcus, Staphylococcus
Endogenous anaerobes: Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Peptococcus
October 25, 2012 # 9:52 pm # Gynae/Obstr # No Comment
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy, either spontaneously or intentionally:
1. Prior to age of viability (28 weeks) OR
2. < 500 gm birth weight
Common Causes of Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage):
A) 1st trimester (GEI)
Genetic factors: Autosomal trisomy, Polyploidy, Monosomy X, Mosaic, Double trisomy
Endocrine disorders: Luteal phase defect (LPD), Thyroid abnormalities, DM
Immunological: Autoimmune (ANAs, Anti-DNA antibodies, Anti-phospholipid antibodies), Alloimmune, Antifetal antibodies (Rh isoimmunization)