Articles in: Gynae/Obstr

Home » Archive » Gynae/Obstr

Maternal Rhesus Isoimmunization : Rh incompatibility

Maternal Rhesus Isoimmunization : Rh incompatibility

Alloimmunization (Isoimmunisation) is defined as the antibody response to foreign antigen derived from different individual of the same species. Rh alloimmunization refers to the development antibodies to Rh D antigen. Antibodies may be produced to Rh antigens C,c,D,E, or e but only D is strongly immunogenic.

1st Rh+ve pregnancy: Rh negative mother bearing Rh positive fetus
Feto-maternal bleed: Abortion, Amniocentesis, Antepartum hemorrhage, …

Uterine leiomyoma or Fibroid

Uterine leiomyoma or Fibroid

Definition: Most common benign neoplasm of female genital tract composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue that is hormonally responsive (Growth ↑ in pregnancy and ↓ after menopause).
Gross pathology:

Discrete, round, firm, irregularly lobulated and often multiple.
Enlarged uterus
Smooth and white cut surface with whorled appearance
False capsule: pinkish color
Center of tumor is least vascular and likely to degenerate

Risk factors:

Hyperestrogenic state
Black race



Within uterine …

Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Definition: It is the polymicrobial infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract typically involving the fallopian tubes, ovaries and surrounding structures (endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, tubo-ovarian abscess).
Causative organisms:
Primary organisms: Ascending spread of micro-organisms from cervico-vaginal canal

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1/3rd cases)
Chlamydia trachomats (1/3rd cases)
Mycoplasma hominis (1/10th cases)

Secondary organisms:

Endogenous aerobes: Non-hemolytic streptococcus, E.coli, Group B streptococcus, Staphylococcus
Endogenous anaerobes: Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Peptococcus

Risk Factors:

Young, …

A Short Review of Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage

A Short Review of Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage

Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy, either spontaneously or intentionally:
1. Prior to age of viability (28 weeks) OR
2. < 500 gm birth weight
Common Causes of Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage):
A) 1st trimester (GEI)

Genetic factors: Autosomal trisomy, Polyploidy, Monosomy X, Mosaic, Double trisomy
Endocrine disorders: Luteal phase defect (LPD), Thyroid abnormalities, DM
Immunological: Autoimmune (ANAs, Anti-DNA antibodies, Anti-phospholipid antibodies), Alloimmune, Antifetal antibodies (Rh isoimmunization)
Infection …

Medchrome Info

"A physician who is a lover of wisdom is the equal to a god." - Hippocrates

Medchrome offers medical students, physicians and other health professionals an easy access to medical information and education materials. It also includes simplified health articles for readers interested in health and well being.

Some of the key features of Medchrome:
Medical cases, Picture galleries, Presentations, Health and Medical Videos, Mnemonics, Medical Student life and Ebooks.