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Rheumatoid Factor (RA Factor) and Its Diagnostic Importance

Rheumatoid Factor (RA Factor) and Its Diagnostic Importance

A presentaion on rheumatoid factor and its significance in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis by students of Kist Medical College


To define Rheumatoid Factor .
To explain briefly its significance in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody that is directed against organism’s own tissues, most relevant in rheumatoid arthritis.
An antibody against the Fc portion of IgG, which is …

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex (MTC):

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium bovis
Mycobacterium microti
Mycobacterium africanum
Mycobacterium canettii

General Characteristics:

Nonmotile, nonsporing and noncapsulated bacillus arranged singly or in group
Has a complex peptidoglycan arabinogalactan mycolate cell wall that is approximately 60% lipid, resulting in acid-fastness, poor Gram staining (weakly gram positive), and resistance to drying and many chemicals
Mycobacterium tuberculosis appears slender, straight or slightly curved rod with beaded or barred appearance …

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) : Etiopathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) : Etiopathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

2 Anatomic Categories:
1. Upper UTI:

Acute pyelitis (renal pelvis)
Acute pyelonephritis (renal parenchyma)

2. Lower UTI:

Cystitis (urinary bladder)
Urethritis (urethra)

Predisposing Factors:

Obstruction of urinary flow: Benign Prostate Hypertrophy, Calculus, Tumor, etc.
Surgery: on the kidney or urinary tract
Catheters: inserted through the urethra into the bladder
Diabetes Mellitus and Immunocompromised states
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): Reflux of urine from bladder up into ureters and renal pelvis
Neurogenic bladder or Bladder diverticulum
Female …

General Principles in Bacteriology Made Easy

General Principles in Bacteriology Made Easy

Bacterial Structures:
Size:  0.2 um (Mycoplasma species – smallest) to 5 um (Bacillus anthracis – largest) (compare RBC: 7um)


Function: Gives rigid support, protects against osmotic pressure
Chemical composition: Sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains

Plasma (Cytoplasmic) membrane:

Function: Site of oxidative and transport enzymes; semipermeable membrane
Chemical composition: Lipoprotein bilayer beneath cell wall

Cell wall (Gram positives):

Function: Major surface antigen; freely permeable
Chemical composition: Peptidoglycan for …

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