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Microbiology of Rabies Virus

Microbiology of Rabies Virus

Properties:

Belongs to genera “lyssavirus” of family “rhabdoviridae”
Bullet shaped
Nucleocapsid shows helical symmetry
ssRNA (single stranded RNA) virus
Outer lipoprotein envelope contains protruding hemagglutinating peplomer spikes

 
Street and Fixed virus Comparison:

Basis of difference
Street virus
Fixed virus

Definition
Freshly isolated viruses from natural human or animal infection that has not undergone any modification in the laboratory
Strains adapted to laboratory animals by several serial intracerebral passages in rabbits

Neurotropism
No
Yes

Incubation period
Long …

Rheumatoid Factor (RA Factor) and Its Diagnostic Importance

Rheumatoid Factor (RA Factor) and Its Diagnostic Importance

A presentaion on rheumatoid factor and its significance in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis by students of Kist Medical College

Objectives

To define Rheumatoid Factor .
To explain briefly its significance in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody that is directed against organism’s own tissues, most relevant in rheumatoid arthritis.
An antibody against the Fc portion of IgG, which is …

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex (MTC):

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium bovis
Mycobacterium microti
Mycobacterium africanum
Mycobacterium canettii

General Characteristics:

Nonmotile, nonsporing and noncapsulated bacillus arranged singly or in group
Has a complex peptidoglycan arabinogalactan mycolate cell wall that is approximately 60% lipid, resulting in acid-fastness, poor Gram staining (weakly gram positive), and resistance to drying and many chemicals
Mycobacterium tuberculosis appears slender, straight or slightly curved rod with beaded or barred appearance …

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) : Etiopathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) : Etiopathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

2 Anatomic Categories:
1. Upper UTI:

Acute pyelitis (renal pelvis)
Acute pyelonephritis (renal parenchyma)

2. Lower UTI:

Cystitis (urinary bladder)
Urethritis (urethra)

Predisposing Factors:

Obstruction of urinary flow: Benign Prostate Hypertrophy, Calculus, Tumor, etc.
Surgery: on the kidney or urinary tract
Catheters: inserted through the urethra into the bladder
Diabetes Mellitus and Immunocompromised states
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): Reflux of urine from bladder up into ureters and renal pelvis
Neurogenic bladder or Bladder diverticulum
Female …

General Principles in Bacteriology Made Easy

General Principles in Bacteriology Made Easy

Bacterial Structures:
Size:  0.2 um (Mycoplasma species – smallest) to 5 um (Bacillus anthracis – largest) (compare RBC: 7um)

Peptidoglycan:

Function: Gives rigid support, protects against osmotic pressure
Chemical composition: Sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains

Plasma (Cytoplasmic) membrane:

Function: Site of oxidative and transport enzymes; semipermeable membrane
Chemical composition: Lipoprotein bilayer beneath cell wall

Cell wall (Gram positives):

Function: Major surface antigen; freely permeable
Chemical composition: Peptidoglycan for …

Microbiology of Vibrio Cholera

Microbiology of Vibrio Cholera

Vibrio cholerae (Kommabacillus) is the causative agent of Cholera. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Every year, there are an estimated 3–5 million cholera cases and 100000–120000 deaths due to cholera. The appelation cholera probably derives from the Greek word for the gutter of a roof, comparing the …

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Approximately 350 million people are infected globally with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and an estimated of 1 million people die from complications of Hepatitis B virus each year. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are extremely resistant strain capable of withstanding extreme temperatures and humidity.
Taxonomy of Hepatitis B virus (HBV):
› Viruses
› Retro-transcribing viruses
› Hepadnaviridae
› Orthohepadnavirus
› Hepatitis B virus
Structure …

Human oncogenic viruses and cancer

Human oncogenic viruses and cancer

Genes that are involved in the control of normal cell proliferation can be classified as:

Proliferative genes: Proto-oncogenes; mutated proto-oncogenes may become oncogenes.
Antiproliferative or tumour-suppressor genes: act to suppress cell proliferation.

Tumour cells also can arise by non-genetic means through the actions of specific tumour viruses called oncogenic virus or oncovirus.

There are two classes of tumor viruses:

Oncogenic DNA viruses
Oncogenic RNA viruses (retroviruses)

Oncogenic …

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Pediatrician and Writer Dr. Sujit Shrestha

Medical student and blogger Binaya Kafle

Rheumatologist Dr. Binit Vaidya

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