Newer Anti-Cancer Agents II – Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal Antibodies have been used in treatment of various diseases in human.Production of monoclonal antibodies involving human–mouse hybrid cells was described by Jerrold Schwaber in 1973. These are  monospecific antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. A possible treatment for cancer involves monoclonal Abs that bind only to cancer cell specific Ag and induce an immunological response against those target cancer cell or ones modified for delivery of  toxins, radioisotopes, cytokines or other active conjugates.

Read about Cytotoxic Anticancer agents

anti-cancer agents

Anti-cancer drugs: MoAb

Rituximab-

  • is a chimeric Ab against B-lymphocyte Ag CD20.
  • This novel agent is used against relapsed or resistant low grade lymphomas and in cases of adults of 60 years and above with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas ( Better response according to a Randomized Study in comparision to Cytarabine,Doxorubicin, Prednisolone and Oncovin : CHOP alone).
  • Combination therapy with  CHOP , Rituximab had better 12 months event free survival.

Transtuzumab-

  • is a recombinant humanized monoclonal  Ab directed against the HER-2/neu gene product.
  • It has shown good response in Early and metastatic breast cancer. Added to 1st line therapy for Breast cancer.

Alemtuzumab-

  • is a humanized monoclonal Ab approved for treatment of relapsed and resistant CLL ( Chronic Lymphoid Lymphomas). It targets the CD52 Ag on abnormal B Lymphocytes found in common leukemias.

Cetuximab-

  • chimeric human/mouse recombinant monoclonal antibody .
  • FDA approved in treatment of Metastatic colorectal cancer that has EFGR over expression.

Bevacizumab-

  • 1 st Antiangiogenic agent to be approved for clinical use in treatment of Cancers. It acts on VECG receptor and inactivates them.
  • 1st line in treatment of Metastatic colon cancer in combination with IFL.
  • Used as single agent in tumor shrinkage in Renal cell cancer and breast  carcinoma.

Reference : Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. CMDT 2007 and Wikipedia

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